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Birch, Black
Chicken Mushroom
Dandelion, Common
Hickory, Shagbark

Jerusalem Artichoke
Juniper, Ground

Maple, Red

Oyster Mushroom
Sumac, Smooth

Juniper Marinade
1/4 cup red wine vinegar
1 and 1/2 cups red wine (Burgundy works well)
4 Juniper berries
1 bay laurel leaf
6 whole peppercorns
1 medium onion, sliced
1 small clove garlic, crushed
1 tsp. salt
4 pinches mace
2 whole cloves
1/8 tsp. thyme
4 pounds meat or game
Combine all the ingredients and store in a covered jar in the refrigerator for at least one day before using. Place the meat or game in a bowl and pour marinade over it. Turn the meat every couple of hours to allow the marinade to penetrate. Marinate at room temperature for 1 to 2 days depending on how strong a marinade flavor you like. Strain the marinade and use it to baste the meat every 20 minutes while it roasts. One pint of marinade is adequate for 4 pounds of meat. Serves 8.

(Edible Plants Cookbook, Greenhills Environmental Center, Dallas TX)
Ground Juniper (Emily Silver, Waltham MA)  

(Jerusalem) Artichoke Chiffon Pie

¾ cup brown sugar
1 envelope of unflavored gelatin
1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice
3 egg whites
3 egg yolks
½ rich milk
¼ cups of mashed Jerusalem Artichoke
⅓ cup of sugar
Graham cracker crust
"In a saucepan, combine ¾ cup brown sugar, 1 envelope of unflavored gelatin, and 1 teaspoon of pumpkin pie spice. Slightly beat 3 egg yolks, add ½ cup of rich milk and stir this into the brown sugar mixture. Cook and stir until it reaches
a boil, then remove form the heat and stir in 1⅓ cups of cooked and mashed artichokes. Chill until the mixture mounds slightly when spooned; this will tak the better part of an hour. Beat the white of 3 eggs until soft peaks form, then gradually add ⅓ cup of sugar, beating until stiff peaks form. Fold the slightly stiffened artichoke mixture into the egg whites and pile it all into a 9-inch graham cracker crust. Chill until firm and serve in huge wedges."

(Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962.)

Jerusalem Artichoke (Hannah Ramer)

Pokeweed Sprout Pickle

1 quart vinegar
1 tablespoon sugar
1 tablespoon salt
1 tablespoon mixed pickling spices
Pokeweed sprouts
"Boil some vinegar with 1 tablespoon each of salt, sugar and mixed pickling spices added to each quart. Pour boiling water over the sprouts and let it stand 20 minutes. Drain and cover with fresh boiling water, this time letting it stand only 3 minutes. Drain quickly, pack the hot sprouts loosely into jars, cover with the boiling vinegar and seal at once. These will be ready to use in about a month."

(Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962.)

Pokeweed (Hannah Ramer)

Maple Syrup and Sugar
    Collecting sap: "Spiles are the spigots from which the sap runs. You can buy a metal one, or make your own
by cutting some large elderberry stems, sawing them
in four-inch lengths and punching out the pith with a
small iron rod. These are abruptly sharpened on one end so when driven in the hole they will fit the opening snugly and still not close off any of the ducts inside through which the sap flows. Near the other end a notch is cut which to hang the pail.
            "With a half-inch bit pointed slightly upward, drill a three-inch deep hole on the sunny side of the tree about three feet above the ground. Gently hammer the pile snugly into place with the notch uppermost, hang on your pail and the tap is complete…Two taps can be put in most trees and more in the larger one…"
            Making the Syrup: "There is no particular
secret or recipe to making good Maple Syrup. It is
simply a matter of boiling it down to a desirable consistency without scorching it… As it approaches
the proper consistency, the syrup will boil over if not closely watched…
            "If you have trouble deciding when the syrup has reached the best consistency, you can use a cooking thermometer. Maple Syrup, when it has exactly the right sugar content, boils at 7° F hotter than the temperature of boiling water…If you want to make Maple Sugar, keep cooking it a bit longer. The boiling temperature will mount more rapidly now, so watch it closely. When it reaches 234°, remove it from the fire and pour it immediately into molds. Buttered muffin tins make excellent molds for small amounts. The little sugar loaves can be removed by slightly warming the bottom of the tin."

(Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962.)

Red Maple (Hannah Ramer, Waltham MA)

Oatmeal-Hickory-Nut Cookies

1¾ cups of flour
2 teaspoons of baking powder
½ teaspoon of soda
1 teaspoon of sals
1 teaspoon of cinnamon
1 teaspoon of nutmeg
1 cup of shortening
1½ cups of brown sugar
2 eggs
½ milk
3 cups of quick-cooking rolled oats
1 cup of broken hickory-nut meats
"Sift together 1¾ cups of flour, 2 teaspoons of baking poder, ½ teaspoon of soda, 1 teaspoon of salt, 1 teaspoon of cinnamon and 1 tasppoon of nutmeg. In another mixing bowl cream together 1 cup of shortening, 1 ½ cups of brown sugar and 2 eggs. Mix and beat until soft and fluffy, then beat in a ½ cup of milk. Combine liquid and dry ingredients, then stif in 3 cups of quick-cooking rolled oats and 1 cup of broken hickory-nut meats. Drop from tablespoon two inches apart on a cookie sheet, and if hickory nuts are plentiful, top each cookie with halves or large pieces of the nuts. Bake in a hot over (440°) 8 to 10 minutes. Allow to cool slightly before trying to remove them from the pan."

(Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962.)

Shagbark Hickory (Emily Silver, Waltham MA)  
Black Birch Tea
"To make a wintergreen-flavored tea, cut some sweet birch twigs in small pieces and cover them with boiling birch sap. Let it steep for a minute or two, then strain out the twigs and sweeten the tea to taste. Some like to add cream or hot milk…
"Birch Tea can also be made of the red, inner bark of sweet birches, but removing this bark from standing timber disfigures and injures the trees. If sweet birches are being cut down anyway, as in land clearing or limbering, one can gather a supply of this fragrant bark without feeling like a vandal. The bark from the stumps and roots is considered best. Use a knife or a carpenter’s wood scraper to remove the outer, dry layer and then peeel off the red inner bark. It peels best in the spring or early summer. If this is cut in small pieces and dried at ordinary room temperature, then sealed in fruit jars one can have the makings of Birch Tea throughout the year. Use boiling water when birch sap is not available. Never boil the twigs or bark in making this tea and never dry the bark in too warm a place, for the wintergreen flavor is very volatile, and is easily driven off by too much heat."

(Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962.)
Black Birch (Hannah Ramer, Waltham MA)  

Cattail Casserole

2 cups of scraped bud material
1 cup of bread crumbs
1 egg
½ cup of milk
salt to taste
pepper to taste
"…scrape the bud material from the cores, mix 2 cups of buds with 1 cup of bread crumbs, a beaten egg and ½ cup of milk. Then salt and black pepper to taste and bake in a casserole dish in a medium oven for 25 minutes."

(Gibbons, Euell. Stalking the Wild Asparagus. New York: David McKay Company, Inc., 1962.)

Cattail (Hannah Ramer, Lincoln MA)  

Chicken Mushroom (Sulfur Shelf)
Saffron Pilaf (Laetiporus sulphureus)

The brilliant bands of orange and yellow on the Sulphur Shelf mushroom tempt one to prepare a dish that explores that end of the color spectrum. Remember, though, that only the most tender part of this huge mushroom is worth eating. Unless you have very young specimens in prime condition only a thin strip along the outer growing edge of each "petal" should be used in cooking. Be firm when your knife encounters firmness: leave it on the tree!

Tender outer edges of Sulphur Shelf mushroom, cut in 2 inch x ½ inch strips
3 tablespoons sweet butter
Salt and freshly ground green peppercorns to taste
Approximately 1 quart chicken stock
1-2 yellow and/or red sweet peppers, cut into diamonds
2 tablespoons dry vermouth or white wine
1/8 teaspoon saffron
1 teaspoon olive oil
1/3 cup uncooked rice per person

Melt the butter in a frying pan, add mushroom strips and salt and pepper to taste. Cover and sauté over low heat for 5 minutes. Add 1 cup chicken stock and simmer slowly for 25 minutes.

While this is cooking, warm the vermouth or white wine in a small metal container, add the saffron, and let it sit for 2 minutes. The alcohol will draw the saffron flavor out and make the most of it—a great help at $2,000 the pound! Bringing the remaining chicken stock to a boil, and add a pinch of salt and a few drops of olive oil along with the uncooked rice. Stir, and add the vermouth and saffron, then cover and cook over low heat for 20 minutes. Add the yellow or red peppers to the mushrooms and simmer for another 5 minutes. Put the rice into a deep serving dish and pour the mushrooms and peppers over it, mixing so that they yellow rice shows.

Chicken Mushroom (Jennifer Suhd-Brondstatter)  

Coquilles St. Jacques
Margaret Lewis (Pleurotus ostreatus)

6 or more fresh oyster mushroom caps per shell, cut to scallop size if necessary
Scallop shells
A few sprigs of fresh parsley
1 lemon
2 shallots and/or garlic cloves
3 tablespoons sweet butter
1 large scallop per shell
¼ teaspoon powdered mustard
Garlic salt to taste
2 tablespoons vermouth
2/3 cup bread crumbs
1 tablespoon flour
1/3 cup milk
Salt and freshly ground green pepper to taste
Dash of paprika

Butter the scallop shells, chop the parsley, and cut the lemon into narrow wedges. Mince the shallots and/or garlic, and sauté with mushroom caps in a tablespoon of butter. Place 1 or more scallops in the center of each shell, then surround with 6 or more oyster mushroom caps. Dribble the shallots evenly over the filled shells and sprinkle very lightly with mustard powder, garlic salt, and the vermouth.

Preheat oven to 350°. Melt a tablespoon of butter in a frying pan and brown the bread crumbs. Set aside.

In another frying pan, add a tablespoon of flour to a tablespoon of melted butter. Stir for a few minutes over
low heat, until the raw taste of the flour is gone. Slowly whisk in 1/3 cup of milk and salt and pepper to taste.
The "cream" sauce should be thin, so cook it for only another minute or two.

Top each of the filled scallop shells with a tablespoon or so of the sauce to prevent drying out, and bake until the scallops are firm (about 15 minutes). Cover with the buttered bread crumbs and chopped parsley, adding a pinch of paprika. Serve the shells with a narrow wedge of lemon.


(McKnight, Kent and Vera Mushrooms: Peterson Field Guides New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1987.)


Oyster Mushroom (Jennifer Suhd-Brondstatter)


Lambsquarters Quiche

1 cup puree of lambsquarters
1 9-inch partially baked pie shell
2 cups thinly sliced potatoes
1 cup onion slices
2 tbs. butter
2 eggs
1/2 cup milk
1/2 to 1 tsp. salt
4 grinds pepper
3 tbs. Parmesan Cheese
Collect at least 4 cups of lambsquarters leaves, steam them in 1/4 cup of boiling water for 5 minutes and puree in blender for 30 seconds. Boil the potatoes in 2 cups salted water for 10 minutes. Saute the onion slices in butter until soft and golden. Place one layer of the partially cooked potatoes on the pie crust; pour the puree on top, next the cooked onion slices, and then the remaining potatoes. Beat together the eggs, milk, salt, pepper, and cheese and pour over the potatoes. Bake in a 350 degree oven for 30 minutes or until a knife inserted in the center comes out clean. Just about any good wild green can be used here in place of the Lambsquarters...experiment!

(Edible Plants Cookbook, Greenhills Env. Center, Dallas TX)

Lambsquarters (Emily Silver, Weston MA)  

Mullein Tea

6 large Mullein leaves
5 cups water
Honey if desired
Gather Mullein leaves from healthy plants. Use leaves green or dry. Break leaves into small pieces. Put in
a teapot and add boiling water. Let the tea steep
for 5 minutes. Serve. This tea is reputed to be a good remedy for colds.

(Edible Plants Cookbook, Greenhills Environmental Center, Dallas TX)

Mullein (Emily Silver, Waltham MA)  

Sumac Recipes:

2 cups Sumac berries
1 quart water
sugar or honey to taste
Collect red, ripe Sumac berries (either Flameleaf Sumac of Smooth Sumac). Bruise and mash the berries in water until the water turns a rich pink. Strain the drink carefully through cheesecloth to remove the sumac bristles and stalks. Sweeten to taste if desired, refrigerate, and serve. Serves 6 to 8.

Mulled Sumac
4 cups sumacade
4 whole cloves
1 stick of cinnamon
1/2 tsp. allspice
1/3 cup brown sugar
1 lemon
freshly grated nutmeg
Put the sumacade in a saucepan and add the cloves, cinnamon, allspice, and sugar. Add the slices of lemon peel and juice of the lemon. Heat the mixture over low heat for 20 minutes. Do not let it boil. Pour into glasses and add a little grated nutmeg on top. Serves 4 to 6. For a winter warm-up, try adding 1/2 ounce of rum.

(Edible Plants Cookbook, Greenhills Environmental Center, Dallas TX)

Smooth Sumac (Hannah Ramer, Waltham MA)  
Dandelion Coffee

1/4 cup dandelion roots
2 tsp. chocolate bits
2 tbs. rum
Collect dandelion roots from healthy plants. Wash and scrub roots to remove all dirt. Dry the roots thoroughly and roast in a 250 degree oven for 2 to 4 hours, until they are brittle and dark brown inside. Grind them and use the powder to make a 4 cups coffee. A drip pot with filter paper works well. Add chocolate and rum to serve after dinner. Serves 4.

(Edible Plants Cookbook, Greenhills Environmental Center, Dallas TX)
Common Dandelion (Hannah Ramer, Waltham MA)