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The Glossary explains common words or phrases relating to fungi that are used throughout the site.

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Glossary
A

Annulus (Ring)

The annulus is the remnant from the partial veil that covered the immature gills of a young mushroom. The partial veil tears as the mushroom grows, leaving behind a ring of thin tissue on the stalk. (exclusive to the stalk and cap model)

Attached Gills

Gills are "attached" when they meet and fuse to the stalk

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F

Free Gills

Gills are "free" when they are separate from the stalk and end before reaching the stalk (see diagram)

G Gills

Blade-like structures, usually arranged radially along the underside of the cap of many mushrooms. They can also be attached to the stalk or free. Gills are the site of spore production.  (see diagram)

H

Hydra (plural: Hyphae)

Hyphae are asexual, root-like threads. A hydra thread originates from a single, haploid spore that has repeatedly undergone mitosis. A complex of hyphae are known as the mycelium.

Hymenium

Hymenium are spore producing cells coating the gills (see diagram)

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M

Micorrhizal

Micorrizal fungi grow in a symbiotic relationship with certain trees. The fungi’s mycelium forms thousands of kilometers of hydra networks through the roots of trees. These hyphae help provide water and nutrients to the tree, while the fungus benefits by tapping the tree’s sugar stores

Mycelium

Mycelium is the name for a cluster of hyphae. The mycelium composes the primary organismal part of the fungus.  The mushroom is just a fruiting body off of the mycelium. (see diagram)

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P

Pore

A pore is the small opening at the end of tubes, spores are released form these openings. Commonly found in boletes and in shelving polypores

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R Ring (Annulus)

The annulus is the remnant from the partial veil that covered the immature gills of a young mushroom. The partial veil tears as the mushroom grows, leaving behind a ring of thin tissue on the stalk. (exclusive to the stalk and cap model)

S

Spore

Spores are haploid cells, the reproductive cells of fungi

Spore Print

A spore print is determined by the spore color of a particular fungus. All fungi create spores in order to reproduce and release their pores through some surface, depending on the fungus. Laying the fungus onto a sheet of paper, and the leaving the specimen covered for 24 hours will produce a spore print. This procedure should be done on both a white piece of paper and on a darker color, such as black or dark blue. The color of the resulting pattern is the color of your spore print. Spore prints can be valuable when identifying otherwise indistinguishable fungi.

Stalk

The stalk is the cylindrical structure that supports the cap of the mushroom. The stalk can range in thickness and shape, from uniformly cylindrical to rounded at the base and tapered at the top (see diagram)

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Tubes

Tubes are the site of spore production in boletes and polypores (see diagram)

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Universal Veil (volva)

The universal veil is the layer of tissue surrounding the immature mushroom (exclusive to the stalk and cap model)

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Volva

The universal veil is the layer of tissue surrounding the immature mushroom (exclusive to the stalk and cap model)

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