FIELD GUIDE TO SHRUBS

GLOSSARY

Alternate- Occurring at different levels on opposite sides of a stem. No two leaves are directly across from each other.

Apex- Leaf tip

Aril- Applied to the coverings or appendages of seeds.

Bract- A much-reduced leaf, often scale-like and usually associated with a flower

Broadleaves- Wide-bladed leaves such as oak or maple leaves

Bud- A growing point enclosed by closely overlaid rudimentary leaves. Buds may
contain foliage or flowers. Bulbs and bulbils are forms of leaf buds. Flower buds are unexpanded blossoms.

Calyx-The outer set of perianth segments or floral envelope of a flower, usually green in color and smaller than the inner set.

Catkin- A spike-like inflorescence comprised of scaly bracts subtending unisexual flowers, often somewhat flexuous and pendulous but not necessarily so.

Compound- A leaf that is divided into two or more leaflets.

Cordate- Heart-shaped, with a sinus and rounded lobes.

Lance-Shaped- In the shape of a spear head.

Corolla- The usually conspicuous part of a flower, called the petals. They are contained within the calyx and immediately surround the stamens and pistil.

Cymes- A more or less flat-topped determinate infl. whose outer fls. open last.

Dioecious- Having unisexual flowers, each sex confined to a separate plant, said of species.

Drupe-A fleshy indehiscent fr. whose seed is enclosed in a stony endorcarp.

Evergreen- Keeping its leaves all year long, although losing some of the older leaves regularly throughout the year. Semi-evergreen plants only lose some leaves or lose older leaves only when new ones develop.

Fascicles- A close cluster.

Glaucous- Having a white, chalky appearance.

Humus- The organic residue of decayed vegetable matter in soil. Also often used to describe partly decayed matter such as leafmold or compost.

Inflorescence- A group of flowers borne on a single axis (stem).

Leaf Margin- Leaf edge

Leaflets- A subdivision of a compound leaf.

Lobes- A rounded projecting segment or part, forming part of a larger structure. A lobed leaf is one whose indentations are large, but don't reach the midrib as compound leaves do.

Midrib- Center line of leaf

Needles- Spiny modified leaves, such as those found on pine trees

Obovate- In a wide oval shap

Opposite- Leaves, which are arranged in pairs. Two leaves grow from one node directly across from each other on each side of a stem.

Panicle- An indeterminate infl. whose primary axis bears branches of pedicelled fls. (at least basally so); a branching raceme.

Pedicels- The stalk of a flower.

Petiole- Leaf-stalk.

Pod- A dry fruit or seed vessel that bursts open when mature and is more or less elongated and cylindrical or flattened, as of the pea, bean, or catalpa.

Samara- A dry indehiscent fruit bearing a wing (the wing may be limb-like or envelop the seed and be wafer-like).

Sepal- Each segment of the calyx. Though usually plain and green, it may sometimes be ornate. The outermost whorl of flower parts.

Simple- This is a leaf that consists of a single blade, unlike a compound leaf, which has two or more.

Stamen- The male floral organ, bearing the anther, which produces pollen.

Stomata- A pore on a plant's stem or leaf, which through opening and closing, controls the exchange of gases with the outside.

Syncarp- An aggregate fruit, as the blackberry.

Toothed- A leaf having jagged edges resembling teeth

Venation- The pattern of leaf veins.

Whorl- Arrangement of three or more structures arising from a single node.