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multiple leaves do not grow from the same spot on the branch; leaves grow at regular intervals with each leaf growing from its own place on the branch


a fleshy, usually brightly colored cover of a seed


a plant that normally requires two seasons to complete its life cycle, growing usually as a rosette in the first season and producing flowers and fruits and then dying in the second season


a somewhat leaflike, petal-like, or woody structure occurring beneath a flower or fruit
bundle scar

a small mark on a leaf scar indicating a point where a vein from the leaf was once connected with the stem


a usually dense, cylindrical, often drooping cluster of unisexual apetalous flowers


leaves composed of 2 or more leaflets; to determine which stucture is the leaf and which is the leaflet, check the base of the stem -- there will be remnants of buds present at the base of a leaf but not a leaflet

composite considered the most highly evolved dicotyledonous plants, characterized by florets arranged in dense heads that resemble single flowers
cross-streaks short, horizontal lines present on the bark of a tree

on every tooth a smaller tooth will be found so that there are 2 levels of toothing around the edge of a leaf or leaflet (compare to single-toothed)

end bud

they can be either true or false; a true end bud actually lies on the end of twig while a false end bud occurs in some species when the end bud is shed and a nearby side bud acts as the end bud (a scar mark will be present on the end of the twig in the case of the false end bud)

even leaf base

when holding the leaf or leaflet with the petiole pointing down, the lowermost edges of the leaf/leaflet that lie on either side of the stem are even in size (compare with uneven leaf base)


a tree, shrub, or plant having foliage that persists and remains green throughout the year


mid-vein of leaflets branch out from the central mid-vein of the leaf at several points in a featherlike pattern


an abnormal swelling of plant tissue caused by insects, microorganisms, or external injury

gracile slender and graceful

made of the hard-to-cut wood of a broad-leaved tree

heartwood the older, nonliving central wood of a tree or woody plant, usually darker and harder than the younger sapwood (also called duramen)
inflorescence the flowering part of a plant or arrangement of flowers on a stalk
infructescence the fruiting stage of an inflorescence


long and pointed
leaf scar

the mark left on a twig after a leaf falls


a leaflike subdivision of a compound leaf


divided into incompletely separated sections; often rounded


the central vein of a leaf or leaflet

a substance that fixes a dye


leaves or leaflets that sprout from the same position on a branch, usually on opposite sides of the branch


the stalk supporting the leaf that extends from the bottom


containing only the female reproductive structures (pistil)
ray each of the flowers surrounding the edge of a disk-shaped composite flower; each ray resembles a petal


having a spongy or hollow center

any of numerous clear to translucent yellow or brown, solid or semisolid, viscous substances of plant origin


a circular cluster of leaves that radiate from a center at or close to the ground

samara a dry, indehiscent (does not split open at maturity), winged, often one-seeded fruit (also called keys)
scales a thin, membrane-like covering of the bud


leaves wih only a single blade (compare to compound)


bearing only a single set of teeth (compare to double-toothed)

made of the easy-to-cut wood of a coniferous tree


containing only the male reproductive structures (stamen)


a leaf with small pointed ridges around its edge (see also single-toothed and double-toothed)

uneven leaf base

when holding the leaf or leaflet with the petiole pointing down, one of the lowermost edges is larger than the other (compare with uneven leaf base)

whorl when branches are arranged in circles around trunk or needles are arranged in circles around a stem

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