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Glossary of Terms
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acidic - of a pH lower than 7; these soils favor certain species and a low pH is common in bogs

acorn - the fruit (nut) of a n oak tree, usually with a cap-like structure

alternate - leaves are arranged singly on a stem (not opposite any other leaf)

anastomosing - bark ridges which alternately meet and spread apart

annual - Plant whose life cycle is limited to one growth season

astringent - substance that acts to constrict tissues and thereby counteract blood or mucus flow out of the body




biennial - plant whose life cycle spans two years, flowering or fruiting once in two years

brachts - modified leaves, often near an influorescence

buds - axillary or terminal plant structure that contains rudimentary leaf or rudimentary flower part

bud scales - the tissue that covers the bud and embryonic leaves of a plant during winter


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catkins - unisexual flowers with no petals, in a spike-like shape

compound - a leaf divided into more than one leaflet

coniferous - trees or shrubs that are cone bearing, mostly ever-green and with needle or scale-like leaves



deciduous - trees or shrubs that shed their leaves every year

dioecious - a species of tree with distinct male and female individuals

disk - the portion of a composite flower in the middle

diuretic - a substance which increases urination




elliptical - shaped like an oval

emetic - substance that will cause vomiting


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galls - abnormal growth on plants caused by parasitic larvae of insects, nematodes, fungi, bacteria or viruses

gymnosperm - "naked seeds", plants whose seeds are not encapsulated in ovaries




humus - soil with a high level of organic matter





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leaflet - an individual portion of a compound leaf



mycorrhizae - a symbiotic relationship between a fungus and the roots of a plant

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ovate - oval, or egg-shaped



peat/sphagnum bog - a wetland composed of acidic moss

perennial - plant whose life cycle lasts longer than two years

petal - a modified leaf, which forms part of the flower. Petals are often distinctly colored.

petiole - the stalk between leaf and stem

pinnately - an arrangement of leaflets opposite one another on a main stem

pod - a fruiting structure, often a method of seed distribution

pistil - the female parts of a flower. These include the ovary, stigma, and style.



rays - the outer portion of a composite flower

receptacle - the portion of the stem that holds an influoresence


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saprophytic - An organism that obtains its nourishment from dead/decaying organic matter.

sepal - each green leaf or part of a flower's calyx

simple - a leaf without leafets, formed of a single blade

shrub - a woody plant usually smaller than a tree, branching out in multiple stems from or near the ground

spathe - Encloses the spadix or a cluster of flower, a (pair of) large and colorful bracts

spadix - inflorescence of a flower, with a thick axis and a spike

stamens - Male part of the flower made up of the anther and the filament, bearing pollens

stipules - a pair of small, leaf-like appendages at the base of a leaf stalk



tree - a tall perennial woody plant




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