Glossary of Terms

alternate - leaves arranged singly, alternating from one side to the other.

bract - a modified leaf that lies underneath another structure.

branchlet - the second smallest division of a branch.

bud - a protuberance found at the end of or along a twig containing an immature leaf or flower.

cone scale - one of the woody flaps that makes up a cone.

conical - a tree with a shape somewhat like a cone with longer branches at the bottom and progressively small branches higher up the tree.

conifer - a plant that reproduces through cones.

deciduous - a plant that loses its leaves in the fall and grows new leaves in the spring.

erect - standing out instead of drooping.

evergreen - a plant that does not lose its leaves in the fall and remains green all year long.

family - a level of taxonomic organization containing a number of genera.

four-sided - having a square cross-section.

genus - a level of taxonomic organization containing a number of species. pl. genera.

irregular - a tree having a non-conical, non-symmetrical shape with non-uniform branch lengths.

opposite - leaves arranged in pairs on opposite sides of the twig.

order - a high level of taxonomic organization containing a number of families.

ornamental - a non-native, intentionally planted tree.

pitch - the sticky resinous sap of many conifers.

prickle - a sharp feature of some cones.

shoot - a young, newly growing branch.

species - the most specific level of the taxonomic organization of organisms.

spiral - leaves arranged around a twig in a pattern like candy-cane stripes.

stalked - attached to the twig with a green stalk instead of being attached directly.

stem - a stalk, connecting other parts of a plant.

taxonomy - the system of classifying organisms into groups.

three-sided - having a triangular cross-section.

twig - the smallest division of a branch.

whorl - a ring of branches coming off of a trunk at the same level.

woody - being made of wood.

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