In this work, we study one of the most abundant, yet poorly characterized genomic phenomena that has the potential to change the basic biological dogma–RNA editing, which creates transcriptome diversity by transforming adenosine into guanosine in RNA sequences. Such alteration, which is performed by ADAR family of deaminases, does not damage the original genomic version, and can be revised when circumstances change. Our analysis demonstrates that ADAR plays an important role in temperature adaptation by sensing and acting globally on RNA secondary structure. We suggest that ADAR has evolved to be highly efficient at cold temperatures, where RNA secondary structure is more prevalent. On the contrary, at high temperatures, where the secondary structure is more labile, ADAR may have negative effects, as it increases the chance of substitution in exonic sequences. Moreover, we observed behavioral defects in the ADAR hypomorphs at high temperatures.
Buchumenski I, Bartok O, Ashwal-Fluss R, Pandey V, Porath HT, Levanon EY, Kadener S. “Dynamic hyper-editing underlies temperature adaptation in Drosophila.” Plos Genetics 10, 1371 (2017) [Web]